来自美国约翰霍普金斯大学的科学家日前研究显示,不规则光周期能直接影响情绪和认知功能,与睡眠和生物节律无关。不规则的光效应是依赖于含“黑视素”的视网膜神经节细胞的,施用抗抑郁症药物能恢复学习能力,说明抑郁效应是在学习能力受损前出现的。

-2012年11月22日《自然》

中文翻译


【题目】异常光线通过表达黑视素的神经元直接损害情绪和学习

【译文】每日太阳活动周期使生物体可以同步它们的昼夜节律和睡-醒周期,以校正临时生境。日长的变化、轮班工作及夜西昼东旅行会导致情绪变化及认知功能缺陷。缺乏睡眠和昼夜节律的破坏成为与不规则光时间表相关的情绪和认知疾病的基础。正常睡眠和昼夜节律的情况下,不规则光时间表是否会直接影响情绪和认知功能还不清楚。利用一种既不改变睡眠结构和睡眠量也不会引起节律定时系统变化的异常光周期,本研究表明光可以直接调控小鼠情绪相关行为和认知功能。暴露在异常光周期的动物维持日常的皮质酮节律,但皮质酮的总体水平增加了。虽然有正常的节律和睡眠结构,但这些动物抑郁样行为增加,并且海马长时程增强和学习受损。施予抗抑郁药物氟西汀或地昔帕明可以恢复暴露于异常光周期的小鼠其学习过程,这表明情绪缺陷先于学习受损。为了阐明这种情绪和学习受损的视网膜神经元回路,我们检查了缺乏光敏视网膜神经节细胞动物中这种光周期的行为结构。在这些动物中,异常光周期不会损害情绪和学习,尽管会影响常规视网膜神经节细胞的出现和这些动物检测光以形成图像的能力。这些发现证实了光通过光敏视网膜神经节细胞影响认知和情绪功能的能力。

英文原稿


[Title]: Aberrant light directly impairs mood and learning through melanopsin-expressing neurons

[Authors]:Tara A. LeGates,1, 4 Cara M. Altimus,1, 4 Hui Wang,2 Hey-Kyoung Lee,2 Sunggu Yang,2 Haiqing Zhao,1 Alfredo Kirkwood,2 E. Todd Weber3 & Samer Hattar1, 2

[Abstract]The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep–wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether irregular light schedules directly affect mood and cognitive functions in the context of normal sleep and circadian rhythms remains unclear. Here we show, using an aberrant light cycle that neither changes the amount and architecture of sleep nor causes changes in the circadian timing system, that light directly regulates mood-related behaviours and cognitive functions in mice. Animals exposed to the aberrant light cycle maintain daily corticosterone rhythms, but the overall levels of corticosterone are increased. Despite normal circadian and sleep structures, these animals show increased depression-like behaviours and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning. Administration of the antidepressant drugs fluoxetine or desipramine restores learning in mice exposed to the aberrant light cycle, suggesting that the mood deficit precedes the learning impairments. To determine the retinal circuits underlying this impairment of mood and learning, we examined the behavioural consequences of this light cycle in animals that lack intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In these animals, the aberrant light cycle does not impair mood and learning, despite the presence of the conventional retinal ganglion cells and the ability of these animals to detect light for image formation. These findings demonstrate the ability of light to influence cognitive and mood functions directly through intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

原文地址

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v491/n7425/full/nature11673.html

 

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