【译文】多倍性通常表现出突变性质,如在同样环境条件下四倍体棉花比二倍体棉花具有更高的纤维产量和质量。本研究报道了约6000万年前一种急剧的5到6倍增长以及100-200万年前再联合趋异棉花基因组的异源多倍性承担了良种棉花(陆地棉和海岛棉)祖先被子植物基因的约30-36倍重复,在已测序的被子植物中其基因复杂度只有芸苔可与之相提并论。 异源多倍体化之前,新生纤维发展可通过纺织性纤维化的草棉A和非纺织性长萼棉基因组与另一种非纺织性雷蒙德氏棉和外类群D基因组相比较来加以解释。陆地棉AtDt(t代表四倍体)变种的序列揭示了亚基因组之间许多非相互的DNA交换,这可能通过多倍体有助于表型新生和/或其他突变性质,例如生态适应。陆地棉大多数DNA水平革新重组了产自新大陆生境和东半球A基因组前体(纺织性纤维进化)的D基因组前体中的等位基因。功能上不同的基因临近群体中协同表达变化,包括核线粒体DNA阻断,可能阐释了影响不同性状的棉花纤维数量性状遗传位点簇。与二倍体前体和外类群相比,分解其他多倍体,尤其是被子植物突变性状的机会非常丰富。


[Title]: Repeated polyploidization of Gossypium genomes and the evolution of spinnable cotton fibres

[Authors]:Andrew H. Paterson,1 Jonathan F. Wendel,2 Heidrun Gundlach,3 Hui Guo,1 Jerry Jenkins,4, 5 Dianchuan Jin,6 Danny Llewellyn,7 Kurtis C. Showmaker,8 Sally A. Walford,7 Robert J. Wright,29 Essam A. Zaki,30 Tianzhen Zhang,31 Elizabeth S. Dennis,7 Klaus F. X. Mayer,3 Daniel G. Peterson,8 Daniel S. Rokhsar,4 Xiyin Wang1, 6 & Jeremy Schmutz4, 5 et al.

[Abstract]:Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1–2 Myr ago, conferred about 30–36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibred Gossypium herbaceum A and non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum AtDt (in which ‘t’ indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and theOld WorldA-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups.


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