来自加拿大多伦多大学的科学家日前研究鉴定了保护噬菌体抵御CRISPR介导的细菌免疫系统的5类噬菌体基因。

-2013年1月17日《自然》

中文翻译


【题目】钝化CRISPR/Cas细菌免疫系统的噬菌体基因

【译文】被细菌广泛利用以抵御潜在危险外源DNA分子的系统是由丛生的调节回文重复(CRISPR)联合cas(CRISPR相关)基因组成的。类似于真核生物中的RNA干扰,这些CRISPR/Cas系统利用小RNA实现序列特异性识别和降解侵入的基因组。本研究描述了首个介导抑制CRISPR/Cas的基因范例。5种不同抗CRISPR基因在噬菌体感染的绿脓假单胞菌基因组中被发现。噬菌体的抗CRISPR基因的突变使其不能感染具有功能性CRISPR/Cas系统的细菌,而添加同样基因到CRISPR/Cas靶向的噬菌体基因组中,便能使其得以逃逸CRISPR/Cas系统。噬菌体编码的抗CRISPR基因可能是噬菌体克服高度普遍的CRISPR/Cas系统的广泛机制。抗CRISPR基因的存在为阐明CRISPR/Cas功能性机制提供了新的方向,并为理解噬菌体和细菌的共进化提供了新的观点。

英文原稿


[Title]: Bacteriophage genes that inactivate the CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system

[Authors]:Joe Bondy-Denomy,1 April Pawluk,2 Karen L. Maxwell3 & Alan R. Davidson1, 2

[Abstract]A widespread system used by bacteria for protection against potentially dangerous foreign DNA molecules consists of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) coupled with cas (CRISPR-associated) genes. Similar to RNA interference in eukaryotes, these CRISPR/Cas systems use small RNAs for sequence-specific detection and neutralization of invading genomes. Here we describe the first examples of genes that mediate the inhibition of a CRISPR/Cas system. Five distinct ‘anti-CRISPR’ genes were found in the genomes of bacteriophages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutation of the anti-CRISPR gene of a phage rendered it unable to infect bacteria with a functional CRISPR/Cas system, and the addition of the same gene to the genome of a CRISPR/Cas-targeted phage allowed it to evade the CRISPR/Cas system. Phage-encoded anti-CRISPR genes may represent a widespread mechanism for phages to overcome the highly prevalent CRISPR/Cas systems. The existence of anti-CRISPR genes presents new avenues for the elucidation of CRISPR/Cas functional mechanisms and provides new insight into the co-evolution of phages and bacteria.

原文地址

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7432/full/nature11723.html

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