nature20130117-3

来自美国麻省脑科学研究中心,比较动物学博物馆的研究人员就发现了动物是如何将构建精巧结构的能力遗传给后代的机制。

-2013年1月17日《自然》

中文翻译


【题目】离散遗传模块负责鼠复杂洞穴的进化

【译文】相对于形态性状,对于自然界中遗传是如何影响复杂行为差异的进化的,还知之甚少。目前还不清楚环境是如何影响可遗传行为中的自然变异的,亦不清楚复杂行为差异是否是通过少数遗传变化而进化的,这些少数遗传变化会影响行为的许多方面,或者通过一些遗传变化的累积产生行为复杂性。本研究表明自然界中,奥菲尔德鼠建立了具有长的入口和逃跑通道的复杂洞穴行为,并表明洞穴长度在群体中是一致的,尽管洞穴深度随着土壤组成而变化。这种洞穴的结构域与其姐妹物种鹿鼠的较小简单洞穴相反。当在实验条件下研究时,两种鼠均能表现出它们自然钻洞行为。两种鼠之间的遗传杂交揭示了奥菲尔德鼠的衍生洞穴是显性的,并通过附加多种遗传变化而进化。在第一代回交小鼠建立的洞穴中,入口通道长度和逃跑通道的存在可以分开,表明这些性状是模块化的。数量性状遗传位点分析也表明通道长度分离为一种复杂性状,受到至少3种独立遗传区域的影响,而逃跑通道的存在仅与单一位点相关。总之,这些结果表明复杂行为(一种典型的扩展表型)可以通过影响不同行为模块的多种遗传变化而进化。

英文原稿


[Title]: Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice

[Authors]:Jesse N. Weber,1, 3 Brant K. Peterson1, 2 & Hopi E. Hoekstra1, 2

[Abstract]Relative to morphological traits, we know little about how genetics influence the evolution of complex behavioural differences in nature. It is unclear how the environment influences natural variation in heritable behaviour, and whether complex behavioural differences evolve through few genetic changes, each affecting many aspects of behaviour, or through the accumulation of several genetic changes that, when combined, give rise to behavioural complexity. Here we show that in nature, oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus) build complex burrows with long entrance and escape tunnels, and that burrow length is consistent across populations, although burrow depth varies with soil composition. This burrow architecture is in contrast with the small, simple burrows of its sister species, deer mice (P. maniculatus). When investigated under laboratory conditions, both species recapitulate their natural burrowing behaviour. Genetic crosses between the two species reveal that the derived burrows of oldfield mice are dominant and evolved through the addition of multiple genetic changes. In burrows built by first-generation backcross mice, entrance-tunnel length and the presence of an escape tunnel can be uncoupled, suggesting that these traits are modular. Quantitative trait locus analysis also indicates that tunnel length segregates as a complex trait, affected by at least three independent genetic regions, whereas the presence of an escape tunnel is associated with only a single locus. Together, these results suggest that complex behaviours—in this case, a classic ‘extended phenotype’—can evolve through multiple genetic changes each affecting distinct behaviour modules.

原文地址

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7432/full/nature11816.html

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