science20130111-2

来自的美国洛克菲勒大学的研究人员发现产后早期发育过程中,啮齿动物的大脑星形胶质细胞中代谢性谷氨酸受体5(mGluR5)的表达会下调。

-2013年1月11日《科学》

中文翻译


【题目】幼年和成年动物的大脑具有不同的谷氨酸依赖性神经胶质钙信号通路

【译文】大量研究表明星形胶质细胞响应谷氨酸能突触传递时,会依赖代谢性谷氨酸受体5(mGluR5)来增加胞浆钙离子(Ca2+)的浓度,然而依赖Ca2+释放的胶质递质会反过来调节神经元的活性。基于年幼的啮齿动物的研究,这些发现已经导形成了三联突触这一概念,其中,星形胶质细胞也活跃地参与神经传递。使用基因组分析、免疫电子显微技术和双光子显微技术研究活体下星形胶质细胞的Ca2+信号通路,本研究发现星形胶质细胞表达的mGluR5受发育程序调控,且在产后3周后就检测不到mGluR5。相比之下,星形胶质细胞在整个发育阶段都会表达mGluR3,活化的mGluR3能够抑制腺苷酸环化酶,但不能抑制Ca2+信号通路。因此,成年动物大脑内神经胶质细胞的信号通路可能以一种根本上不同于发育过程中表现出的信号通路来传递。

英文原稿


[Title]: Glutamate-Dependent Neuroglial Calcium Signaling Differs Between Young and Adult Brain  

[Authors]: Wei Sun, Evan McConnell, Jean-Francois Pare, Qiwu Xu, Michael Chen, Weiguo Peng, Ditte Lovatt, Xiaoning Han, Yoland Smith, and Maiken Nedergaard

[Abstract]: An extensive literature shows that astrocytes exhibit metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)–dependent increases in cytosolic calcium ions (Ca2+) in response to glutamatergic transmission and, in turn, modulate neuronal activity by their Ca2+-dependent release of gliotransmitters. These findings, based on studies of young rodents, have led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, in which astrocytes actively participate in neurotransmission. Using genomic analysis, immunoelectron microscopy, and two-photon microscopy of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling in vivo, we found that astrocytic expression of mGluR5 is developmentally regulated and is undetectable after postnatal week 3. In contrast, mGluR3, whose activation inhibits adenylate cyclase but not calcium signaling, was expressed in astrocytes at all developmental stages. Neuroglial signaling in the adult brain may therefore occur in a manner fundamentally distinct from that exhibited during development.

原文地址

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6116/197.short

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